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输入外挂总结


题外话

明明在C语言中有scanf()、printf(),C++中有cin、cout,为什么我们还要用输入输出外挂呢?

这个问题很明显,一定是因为这些输入输出函数功能过于强大而导致效率低,(很多时候,功能越强大的东西越臃肿),而我们使用的输入输出外挂既然叫外挂,那说明其一定有很大的优势,而这方面优势就体现在术有专攻上。原来的输入输出函数因为要应对不同类型的输入输出,所以内部一定做了很多的判断,而我们在遇见实际问题时,往往都是对特定类型的进行输入输出,所以这些判断就显得无用且浪费资源。这时,我们的输入输出外挂也就有了存在的必要性,也就应运而生。

我们都知道,scanf()、printf()、cin、cout其实就是对其他一些基础的获取或输出语句(getchar() putchar()等)进行封装,而这些基础的函数功能弱,效率高,所以我们的输入输出外挂也是仿照着scanf()、printf()、cin、cout来实现的,只不过做了针对性的改造,最终我们改造出来多种功能比scanf()等弱、比getchar()等强,效率比scanf()等高、比gerchar()等低的函数,从而达到针对性的作用,减少了不必要的资源消耗。

当然输入输出外挂一般用在大量输入输出的情况下,这样性价比才高一些,否则得不偿失(牺牲了代码长度而换来了微不足道的效率提升)。
摘抄原文:https://blog.csdn.net/f_zyj/article/details/51473493

普通输入外挂(适用于正整数)

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void read(int &x){
char ch = getchar(); x = 0;
for (; ch < '0' || ch > '9'; ch = getchar());
for (; ch >= '0' && ch <= '9'; ch = getchar()) x = x * 10 + ch - '0';
}

整数输入外挂(适用于整数)

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const int BufferSize=1<<16;
char buffer[BufferSize],*head,*tail;
inline char Getchar() {
if(head==tail) {
int l=fread(buffer,1,BufferSize,stdin);
tail=(head=buffer)+l;
}
return *head++;
}
inline int read() {
int x=0,f=1;char c=Getchar();
for(;!isdigit(c);c=Getchar()) if(c=='-') f=-1;
for(;isdigit(c);c=Getchar()) x=x*10+c-'0';
return x*f;
}

加强版输入外挂(速度比普通输入外挂快不少)

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namespace fastIO {
#define BUF_SIZE 100000
//fread -> read
bool IOerror = 0;
inline char nc() {
static char buf[BUF_SIZE], *p1 = buf + BUF_SIZE, *pend = buf + BUF_SIZE;
if (p1 == pend) {
p1 = buf;
pend = buf + fread(buf, 1, BUF_SIZE, stdin);
if (pend == p1) {
IOerror = 1;
return -1;
}
}
return *p1++;
}
inline bool blank(char ch) {
return ch == ' ' || ch == '\n' || ch == '\r' || ch == '\t';
}
inline void read(int &x) {
char ch;
while (blank(ch = nc()));
if (IOerror) return;
for (x = ch - '0'; (ch = nc()) >= '0' && ch <= '9'; x = x * 10 + ch - '0');
}
#undef BUF_SIZE
};
using namespace fastIO;

加强版完整型输入外挂包(速度快,适用于整形,浮点型)

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namespace fastIO{
#define BUF_SIZE 100000
#define OUT_SIZE 100000
#define ll long long
//fread->read
bool IOerror=0;
inline char nc(){
static char buf[BUF_SIZE],*p1=buf+BUF_SIZE,*pend=buf+BUF_SIZE;
if (p1==pend){
p1=buf; pend=buf+fread(buf,1,BUF_SIZE,stdin);
if (pend==p1){IOerror=1;return -1;}
//{printf("IO error!\n");system("pause");for (;;);exit(0);}
}
return *p1++;
}
inline bool blank(char ch){return ch==' '||ch=='\n'||ch=='\r'||ch=='\t';}
inline void read(int &x){
bool sign=0; char ch=nc(); x=0;
for (;blank(ch);ch=nc());
if (IOerror)return;
if (ch=='-')sign=1,ch=nc();
for (;ch>='0'&&ch<='9';ch=nc())x=x*10+ch-'0';
if (sign)x=-x;
}
inline void read(ll &x){
bool sign=0; char ch=nc(); x=0;
for (;blank(ch);ch=nc());
if (IOerror)return;
if (ch=='-')sign=1,ch=nc();
for (;ch>='0'&&ch<='9';ch=nc())x=x*10+ch-'0';
if (sign)x=-x;
}
inline void read(double &x){
bool sign=0; char ch=nc(); x=0;
for (;blank(ch);ch=nc());
if (IOerror)return;
if (ch=='-')sign=1,ch=nc();
for (;ch>='0'&&ch<='9';ch=nc())x=x*10+ch-'0';
if (ch=='.'){
double tmp=1; ch=nc();
for (;ch>='0'&&ch<='9';ch=nc())tmp/=10.0,x+=tmp*(ch-'0');
}
if (sign)x=-x;
}
inline void read(char *s){
char ch=nc();
for (;blank(ch);ch=nc());
if (IOerror)return;
for (;!blank(ch)&&!IOerror;ch=nc())*s++=ch;
*s=0;
}
inline void read(char &c){
for (c=nc();blank(c);c=nc());
if (IOerror){c=-1;return;}
}
//fwrite->write
struct Ostream_fwrite{
char *buf,*p1,*pend;
Ostream_fwrite(){buf=new char[BUF_SIZE];p1=buf;pend=buf+BUF_SIZE;}
void out(char ch){
if (p1==pend){
fwrite(buf,1,BUF_SIZE,stdout);p1=buf;
}
*p1++=ch;
}
void print(int x){
static char s[15],*s1;s1=s;
if (!x)*s1++='0';if (x<0)out('-'),x=-x;
while(x)*s1++=x%10+'0',x/=10;
while(s1--!=s)out(*s1);
}
void println(int x){
static char s[15],*s1;s1=s;
if (!x)*s1++='0';if (x<0)out('-'),x=-x;
while(x)*s1++=x%10+'0',x/=10;
while(s1--!=s)out(*s1); out('\n');
}
void print(ll x){
static char s[25],*s1;s1=s;
if (!x)*s1++='0';if (x<0)out('-'),x=-x;
while(x)*s1++=x%10+'0',x/=10;
while(s1--!=s)out(*s1);
}
void println(ll x){
static char s[25],*s1;s1=s;
if (!x)*s1++='0';if (x<0)out('-'),x=-x;
while(x)*s1++=x%10+'0',x/=10;
while(s1--!=s)out(*s1); out('\n');
}
void print(double x,int y){
static ll mul[]={1,10,100,1000,10000,100000,1000000,10000000,100000000,
1000000000,10000000000LL,100000000000LL,1000000000000LL,10000000000000LL,
100000000000000LL,1000000000000000LL,10000000000000000LL,100000000000000000LL};
if (x<-1e-12)out('-'),x=-x;x*=mul[y];
ll x1=(ll)floor(x); if (x-floor(x)>=0.5)++x1;
ll x2=x1/mul[y],x3=x1-x2*mul[y]; print(x2);
if (y>0){out('.'); for (size_t i=1;i<y&&x3*mul[i]<mul[y];out('0'),++i); print(x3);}
}
void println(double x,int y){print(x,y);out('\n');}
void print(char *s){while (*s)out(*s++);}
void println(char *s){while (*s)out(*s++);out('\n');}
void flush(){if (p1!=buf){fwrite(buf,1,p1-buf,stdout);p1=buf;}}
~Ostream_fwrite(){flush();}
}Ostream;
inline void print(int x){Ostream.print(x);}
inline void println(int x){Ostream.println(x);}
inline void print(char x){Ostream.out(x);}
inline void println(char x){Ostream.out(x);Ostream.out('\n');}
inline void print(ll x){Ostream.print(x);}
inline void println(ll x){Ostream.println(x);}
inline void print(double x,int y){Ostream.print(x,y);} //y为小数点后几位
inline void println(double x,int y){Ostream.println(x,y);}
inline void print(char *s){Ostream.print(s);}
inline void println(char *s){Ostream.println(s);}
inline void println(){Ostream.out('\n');}
inline void flush(){Ostream.flush();} //清空
#undef ll
#undef OUT_SIZE
#undef BUF_SIZE
};
using namespace fastIO;
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